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HACCP Implementation in a Shared Kitchen Environment

HACCP Implementation in a Shared Kitchen Environment

Outgoing FDA Commissioner Gottlieb released his 2nd letter concerning the legal fate of Cannabidiol (CBD) in the last 6 months

Introduction

This paper examines the challenge of HACCP implementation in a shared kitchen context. The first sections aim to guide a shared kitchen operator in assessing whether they can accommodate user-managed HACCP programs in their facility. The second half of the paper offers recommendations for how a shared kitchen operator may align their operations to support HACCP implementation. These recommendations are also provided in the sections below.

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Table of Contents

  • Preface

  • A Quick Primer on HACCP

  • The Feasibility of HACCP Implementation in a Shared Kitchen

  • When is a HACCP Plan Required?

  • Liability

  • Recommendations for Shared Kitchen

  • Operators

    • General

    • User Relationships

    • Operations

    • Facility Layout

    • Facility Maintenance

  • Conclusion


Recommendations For Shared Kitchen Operators

General

Comply with applicable regulations The first step in supporting HACCP programs is to comply with all applicable health regulations (federal, state, local). If there are outstanding health-code violations, the operator should consider addressing those first.

Understand HACCP Principles The simplest way to do this is to take a HACCP course (they are available online) and read through several HACCP plans. It is absolutely critical for an operator to have a thorough understanding of HACCP so that they can assess the plans and practices of shared kitchen users.


User Relationships

Appendix  1 lists commonly occurring process steps and hazards found in shared kitchens. Food processors can use this as a guide when building their hazard analysis.

Appendix 1 lists commonly occurring process steps and hazards found in shared kitchens. Food processors can use this as a guide when building their hazard analysis.

Set expectations with prospective users An operator should set clear expectations about how their shared kitchen may (or may not) be able to support HACCP implementation. A comprehensive tour of the space and candid explanation about how operations are conducted will support a prospective user in assessing the site’s suitability for their HACCP implementation. If an operator already has HACCP programs operating in their space, they may be able to offer more practical details about how those programs are effectively managed.

Assess each case individually Since each production process entails unique food safety risks and HACCP supports a risk-based approach, the shared kitchen operator must consider each prospective HACCP program individually. At minimum, the operator should consider the final product, the process steps and the associated hazards. Then, the operator will be able to assess whether effective HACCP implementation is feasible in their facility. Note that this oversight is meant to reduce the shared kitchen’s liability exposure, not to micromanage the user’s operations.

Protect public health and liability If a user is producing illegally without a HACCP plan or is implementing their HACCP program improperly, the operator should immediately suspend that processor’s use of the space until they are able to faithfully enact their HACCP program. This should not be viewed as punitive but rather as an effort to protect the shared kitchen and all of the users operating in the space.


Operations

Good news! HACCP is most easily implemented in shared kitchens where the operator has a “hands off” approach. Here’s why: HACCP requires the food processor to maintain tight control over their process steps and keep records proving that those processes were performed correctly.

If the shared kitchen operator provides services that are related to food safety— for example, cleaning processing areas on a recurring basis— the user working under a HACCP plan cannot (legally) trust that those activities are being performed properly. Instead, the user must confirm that those cleaning activities are effective and verify that they are being performed according to schedule and keep records to prove it. Maintaining this kind of coordination with the shared kitchen operator is sufficiently difficult that most users implementing a HACCP program choose to conduct all sanitation activities themselves— even if the operator is already providing those services. Below are some specific recommendations for building HACCP-aligned operations in shared kitchens:

Define who is responsible for maintaining prerequisite programs (PRPs) Operators should define who is responsible for maintaining prerequisite programs and share this information with users before they begin operating in the space. This way, both the operator and user understand what systems they are accountable for maintaining and where they can demand accountability. PRPs may be grouped into three broad categories:

Operator’s responsibility: This refers to prerequisite programs which the operator is responsible for maintaining and documenting. These programs typically favor centralized management, and may include:

◈ Pest control

When dedicated cold storage spaces are not available, lockable, vented totes can minimize contamination risks.

When dedicated cold storage spaces are not available, lockable, vented totes can minimize contamination risks.

◈ Maintenance of shared equipment

◈ Waste management

◈ Clean water supply

User’s responsibility: This refers to PRPs which the user must enact and maintain on their own. Typically, these programs are unique to each food processor and may include:

◈ Product traceability

◈ Supplier verification

◈ Food handling practices

Overlapping Responsibility: This refers to PRPs that may be maintained by both the operator and the user. For example,

◈ Control of employee health -- both the operator and user have employees who must comply with employee health policies.

◈ Allergen control -- The operator may control allergens through the structural zoning of space while users must maintain allergen control through their production process and storage methods.

◈ Sanitation activities -- The operator may offer a basic sanitation program while the user conducts additional sanitation activities on their own.

By defining responsibilities and enforcing accountability (even among their own staff), the operator protects the kitchen from a “tragedy of the commons” scenario where facility conditions deteriorate over time.

Allow users to retain process control Users should be allowed to pursue a high degree of autonomy so that they can maintain total control of their process and ensure their pre-requisite programs are effective. Any “concierge” services or prerequisite programs offered by the shared kitchen operator should be structured so that a business can “opt out” and conduct those activities themselves, according to their HACCP plan.

Make food safety records available: When the operator performs a prerequisite program related to food safety, a record of that activity should be produced and made available for users to access. This may include:

◈ Sanitation records

◈ Records of equipment maintenance and calibration

◈ Refrigeration logs

◈ MSDS records and product specs for all chemicals/consumables onsite

◈ Pest control reports

◈ Receiving logs (if raw ingredients are received by the operator on behalf of the user)

Strive for operational consistency and communicate changes A processor’s HACCP plan will define not only the details of their specific process but also details pertaining to the overall facility and the prerequisite programs applied by the operator. In the same way that a change to the business’s production process would require them to update their HACCP documentation, so would operational changes implemented by the shared kitchen operator at the site level.

While it is important for operators to continuously improve their systems, it is also important to acknowledge that each user’s HACCP documentation must reflect these changes once they occur. For this reason, the operator should communicate any upcoming changes to food safety systems with the entire user base. This will give users an opportunity to consider those changes and adjust their HACCP plans accordingly.


Facility Layout

Physical separation between workstations is a simple solution for minimizing cross contamination.

Physical separation between workstations is a simple solution for minimizing cross contamination.

The arrangement of workstations, storage, and utility areas in a shared kitchen can be optimized to support HACCP implementation. While it may be prohibitively expensive to undertake large scale infrastructure improvements, an operator may be able to address hazards in the facility layout by adjusting the use-of-space. Fortunately, HACCP is a flexible system that allows a processor to minimize hazards using any method that is safe and effective. An operator may consider the following strategies:

Offer dedicated access processing spaces If possible, an operator should offer dedicated-access processing spaces that a single business can occupy long term. This arrangement allows users to operate with high levels of process control, favoring a simpler HACCP program.

Use distance and barriers to minimize contamination risks in shared spaces If businesses operate in a shared space, an operator can structurally mitigate contamination risk through physical barriers (e.g. partitions) or a buffer zone between processing areas. Avoid layouts where prep tables are directly adjacent to each other and where cross contamination may easily occur.

Zone food processing and storage activities based on risk profile An operator may zone the space based on the types of risks presented by processing activities. This structurally minimizes opportunities for contamination. Types of zoning include:

◈ Allergen-based zoning: This may confine certain allergens to specific zones

◈ Hygienic zoning: Higher risk processing activities are confined to areas where higher standards of hygiene and sanitation are in place.

◈ Ingredient-based zoning: The use of certain ingredients are confined to specific zones, based on associated microbiological hazards

Offer dedicated-access storage spaces An operator may offer dedicated-access storage spaces to protect stored goods from interference or contamination. Possible solutions may include individually lockable storage closets or cages. In cold storage, dedicated reach-in refrigerators allow for individual temperature control, product security, and minimization of contamination risk from other users’ products.


Facility Maintenance

Implementing a HACCP program requires the food processor to assess any risk that may occur— including hazards that originate from the building itself. Even in a conventional food processing facility, it is common for the renter to assess a hazard that the only the building owner can repair, such as a leaky roof. In the shared kitchen environment, the user has even less control over facility conditions than a food processor operating in a conventionally rented space, and this may be the cause of some anxiety. Below are some ways that a shared kitchen operator can support HACCP programs through effective facility maintenance.

Conduct professional repairs Repairs should be conducted by professionals and DIY-fixes (e.g. duct-taped pipes) should be avoided. Because these types of temporary repairs may introduce a food safety hazard, users operating under a HACCP plan will be unable to use that piece of equipment until it is completely repaired and the hazard is eliminated.

Align facility conditions with cGMPs In order to create a safe environment for food processing, operators should meet the Current Good Manufacturing Practices outlined in the Code of Federal Regulations. Regardless of whether the users in the space are FDA-regulated, this section provides a widely accepted set of standards for safe food processing. Below are several linked guides and the original text of the regulation:

Additional Resources

FDA Reader Guides:

Plants & Grounds

Sanitary Operations

Equipment & Utensils

Regulation Summary

Source Texts:

Code of Federal Regulations §117 CGMPs

 
Environmental Monitoring in Food Processing

Introduction: Environmental Monitoring Program

Environmental monitoring post image.png


As food processor’s grow and face increased scrutiny from auditors and inspectors, they begin to wonder about environmental monitoring and whether they should implement this type of program in their facility. This section aims to answer those questions.

What is environmental monitoring in food processing?

Environmental monitoring is a process used in facilities that produce ready-to-eat (RTE) foods that assesses how effectively the plant is being cleaned.

This typically means swabbing various surfaces (e.g. cutting blades, tables, conveyers) for pathogens and sending those samples out to a lab for analysis. 

The goal is to determine whether any pathogens (e.g. listeria, salmonella) are living in facility and to respond accordingly if a positive result is found. 

It’s important to recognize that a clean test result doesn’t confirm that your food is safe, rather it verifies that your cleaning processes are effective. 


Do I need an environmental monitoring program in my food facility?

Legally, the FDA leaves this decision up to the food processor. GFSI-aligned 3rd party audits typically require environmental monitoring programs to be in place for producers of ready-to-eat food that are exposed to the environment post-kill step.

An easy way to determine whether you need an environmental monitoring program is to answer the following questions (a “yes” would suggest that you may need one)

  1. Does your process have a kill-step (e.g. cooking)

  2. Is your product exposed to the environment after the kill step and before packaging?

  3. Is your product a collection of ready-to-eat products combined to produce a ready-to-eat food that doesn’t include a kill-step?

  4. If your product is refrigerated, is it one that is conducive to the growth of listeria monocytogenes (e.g. deli meat, raw cheese/milk, seafood, sprouts)

Because ready-to-eat foods are typically not processed by the consumer before consumption, it’s important to know that there’s no chance they might be contaminated by pathogens in an unclean facility.

While testing the product itself can may inform you about the safety of that sample, testing the facility verifies that your cleaning activities are working and that each batch is being produced in a pathogen-free environment.


Am I ready to implement an environmental monitoring program?

If you’ve already confirmed that you should have an environmental monitoring program, consider the following questions before diving into a plan:

  • Do you have a thorough sanitation program? Your environmental monitoring program is a test of your cleaning, so if you have doubts about the thoroughness of your sanitation practices, address those first.

  • Do you have the resources to enact it faithfully? Once you launch your program, it’s important to follow it. If you doubt your ability to adhere to the program you’ve created or respond appropriately to a test result, then you should address those gaps prior to implementing the program.


What pathogens should I test for in my environmental monitoring program?

The most common pathogens which can be found living in the nooks and crannies of a facility are

  • listeria monocytogenes

  • salmonella

  • E. coli.


You may test for these directly or indicator microorganisms that represent each pathogen.

Additionally, you may conduct environmental monitoring for specific allergens to confirm that there is no allergen residue in your space. This would only be a consideration if you were processing both allergen containing and non-allergen containing products on the same equipment.


What does an environmental monitoring program actually consist of?

Environmental monitoring program typically includes the following components:

  • A risk assessment of the hazards you’ve identified: Looking at your ingredients and the nature of your operation, you should be able to identify the specific pathogens that may exist in the environment. You may have started this in your hazard analysis.

  • Your methodology

    • A map of your facility separated into hygienic zones (e.g. Zone 1 is the highest risk part of the production process and Zone 4 is the office)

    • A process for exactly how you will collect your samples 

    • A description of how often you will conduct your environmental monitoring (see below)

    • A description of where you will swab. These should be the highest risk areas where bacteria may be hiding and could get into your product.

  • A description of how you will have the tests analyzed (most likely by an external party, but it also may be in an in-house lab). You must list the specific lab conducting the analysis and confirm they’re properly accredited.

  • Corrective Action procedures, i.e. how you will respond if you receive a positive result.


How often should I conduct environmental monitoring? 

The frequency of environmental monitoring is determined by your process and the hazards you identified in your hazard analysis.

Raw Foods Example: Let’s say your facility produces snack packages of raw carrots and ranch dressing. Since the product will be consumed raw, you’ll want to have extremely high standards of hygiene in your space. After conducting initial, pre-operation environmental monitoring, you may choose to conduct monitoring activities weekly in high risk zones (e.g. blades, conveyers, tables) and monthly in lower risk zones  (walls, floors, drains). Ultimately, the decision of “how often” is up to you — you simply have to be able to justify that your frequency of sampling and testing is sufficient to determine that your sanitation efforts are effective.

Still not sure? Consider researching industry standards for environmental monitoring in plants producing products similar to yours. Start with that and then you can use historical data from your own site once your program is operational.You may only have to conduct environmental monitoring one time, such as when you move into a new facility and after you’ve completed a deep clean. This result would just be to confirm that you’re starting with a clean, pathogen-free space.


What happens if a pathogen is discovered in the test result?


If you get a positive hit in your environmental monitoring you will enact the corrective actions you’ve outlined in your plan. Depending on the type of result received, this may include re-cleaning, re-testing, holding product, and possibly a product recall. Check out This article to learn about hygienic zoning in an EMP and developing corrective actions


 
Record Keeping

All of our food safety plan templates are aligned with this section.

What You Need To Know

Part 117 Subpart F contains the requirements for record keeping

Part 117 Subpart F contains the requirements for record keeping

  • Keep all of your records related to your food safety lan.

  • Records can be electronic or paper.

  • You must store records onsite for at least 2 years

  • All records must be made available upon request

Record Keeping Requirements

How Records Must Be Kept

  • Records must be kept as originals, true copies (i.e. scans, photocopies) or electronic records.

  • They must contain the actual values and observations, not summaries.

  • They must be accurate, unchangeable (i.e. pen) and legible

  • They must have been created in real-time with the activity being documented.

Required Information on All Records

The following information is required on all records you keep:

  1. information about the plant identity

  2. The date (and time, if necessary)

  3. Signature or initials of the observer

  4. Product name and lot code, if applicable

How long do I need to keep them for?

All records must be retained onsite for 2 years. Additionally, you must be able to retrieve records within 24 hours if an authorized request is made.


 
 

This Article is For You if…

∆ You take any records as part of your food safety plan

∆ You are developing a food safety plan or HACCP plan.

∆ You are any type of FDA regulated food business


Resources

FDA Regulation On Record Keeping

FDA Regulation On Record Keeping


More About Food Safety Plans

More Posts


Validation

What You Need To Know:

  • Validation answers the question “How do you know it works?”

  • You must validate that the preventive controls that you implement actually work.

  • Validation activities includes using scientific and technical evidence (or conducting your own studies)

Example of Validation: Collecting scientific research, and conducting tests to prove that the cooking temperature in your recipe is effective in killing the harmful bacteria in the product.

Hint: you can find information to validate many food processing practices on the FDA website.


What is Validation?

Validation means obtaining and evaluating scientific and technical evidence that a control measure, combination of control measures, or the food safety plan as a whole, when properly implemented, is capable of effectively controlling the identified hazards.

21 CFR 117(c)(1)(i)

When is Validation Required?

You are required to validate every preventive control you are implementing. This means that if you use cooking as a means to kill bacteria, then you need to show that the time and temperature are a valid method for killing that bacteria type. This can often be achieved by referencing FDA guidance materials.

You are not required to validate the following types of preventive controls:

  • Sanitation Preventive Controls

  • Food Allergen Controls

  • Recall Plan

Who Conducts Validation?

All validation activities must be performed by a preventive controls qualified individual.


When do I need to validate my preventive controls?

You must validate your preventive controls:

  • Within 90 days of beginning production or there must be written justification for why if  >90 days after production begins.

  • Whenever a change is made that could impact how a hazard is controlled.

  • Whenever the food safety plan is reanalyzed.

What Part of My Food Safety Plan Require Validation?

Some parts of your food safety plan do not need to be validated. Sanitation activities, for example, do not need to be validated because most people use a small set of scientifically proven processes (i.e. soap and water, common chemical sanitizers). As a result, there is no need to require each business to prove their sanitation practices actually work.

The following activities do not require validation

  • Food allergen controls

  • Sanitation controls

  • Recall plan

  • Supply chain program

  • Other preventive controls if the PCQI prepares the written justification that a validation is not applicable based the nature of the hazard and the preventive control.


 
 

This Article is For You if…

∆ You are developing a food safety plan or HACCP plan.

∆ You have implemented a preventive control or identified a hazard that requires a preventive control


FDA Regulation on Validation


More About Food Safety Plans

More Posts


Verification

If you are unsure whether corrective action is required, see Verification vs. Validation

What You Need To Know

  • Verification means confirming that other parts of the food safety plan have been undertaken as specified.

  • Verification can take the form of a supervisor regularly reviewing records and verifying them with a signature.


What is Verification?

Verification means the application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring, to determine whether a control measure or combination of control measures is or has been operating as intended and to establish the validity of the food safety plan.

21 CFR 117(c)(1)(i)

Examples of Verification

Common examples of verification include:

  • Reviewing cooking records to confirm the required temperature and cook time was reached

  • Reviewing refrigeration records to confirm food was held sufficiently cold

  • Observation that employees are following good food-handling practices

  • Calibrating thermometers – this verifies that they are reading properly

  • Sampling your own product for pathogens to verify that your process was faithfully performed

  • Environmental monitoring – testing your production space for pathogens living on surfaces, in drains, etc.

  • Supplier Verification – reviewing a supplier’s records to confirm they are faithful to their food safety practices and claims.

When is Verification Required?

All records which monitor a preventive control must be verified within 7 days of their creation.

All corrective action records must be reviewed within 7 days of their creation.

Other verification records, such as instrument calibration, product testing, and environmental monitoring, must be verified “within a reasonable amount of time” as determined by the producer.

Who Conducts Verification?

All verification activities must be performed by a preventive controls qualified individual (PCQI).


What You Need to Do:

  • Verify that your preventive controls are being implemented and monitored. You can do this by checking that monitoring records were completed.

  • Verify that corrective actions are taken when necessary and that the right decisions are being made in relation to any process deviations.

  • You must keep your verification records on file (digital is fine)


 
 

This Article is For You if…

∆ You are developing a food safety plan or HACCP plan.

∆ You have implemented a preventive control or have identified a hazard that requires a preventive control

∆ You take any records as part of your food safety plan


Resources

Verification Log Template

Verification Log Template

FDA Regulation on Verification

FDA Regulation on Verification


More About Food Safety Plans

More Posts


Corrective Action

If you are unsure whether corrective action is required, see Corrective Action vs. Correction

What You Need To Know:

  • Corrective Action is a response that must be taken if a preventive control is not properly implemented.

  • Corrective Actions must be written and are often completed using a standard form (see our free Corrective Action template)


What You Need to Do:

1. Write Corrective Actions Procedures

You must establish and implement written corrective action procedures. These procedures must describe the steps to be taken to ensure that:

  • Appropriate action is taken to correct a problem associated with a preventive control.

  • Appropriate action is taken to reduce the likelihood that the problem will recur.

  • All affected food is evaluated for safety

  • All affected food is prevented from entering commerce.

2. Take Corrective Action When it is Required

When to Take Corrective Action:

You must take a corrective action if

  • A preventive control fails and a corrective action hasn't been established.

  • A preventive control is found to be ineffective

  • Verification records are found to be incomplete or improper decisions were made about corrective action

3. Keep Records of Your Corrective Actions

All corrective actions taken in this section must be documented. We recommend using a pre-written form so that it’s easy to complete and no details are missing. Check out our corrective action template here

Corrective actions must also be verified (See Verification or §117.155)


 
 

This Article is For You if…

∆ You are developing a food safety plan or HACCP plan.

∆ You have implemented a preventive control or identified a hazard that requires a preventive control


Resources

FDA Regulation on Corrective Actions

FDA Regulation on Corrective Actions

Corrective Action Template

Corrective Action Template


More About Food Safety Plans

More Posts


Monitoring

These requirements are a part of our comprehensive Food Safety Plan Guide

What You Need To Know:

  • Monitoring means observing some activity in your production— such as checking the temperature of your walk-in refrigerator

  • Monitoring is required for all preventive controls to ensure they are implemented properly.

  • You must have written procedures for how and how often you will monitor preventive controls.

  • You must monitor preventive controls enough to ensure they are being performed.

Record keeping Requirements

  1. You must document your monitoring actions, store them, and also verify them (see verification)

  2. Exception records are acceptable type of monitoring record (this means records are only taken when a deviation occurs.) For example, a refrigeration log may shows records only when the temperature is outside the acceptable range.


Resources

FDA Regulation on Monitoring Preventive Controls

FDA Regulation on Monitoring Preventive Controls

 
Preventive Controls

These requirements are a part of our comprehensive Food Safety Plan Guide

What You Need To Know:

  • A preventive control is a strategy implemented to eliminate a hazard in a food manufacturing environment

  • You must identify and implement preventive controls when you identify a hazard that is reasonably likely to cause injury to a customer if left unaddressed.

  • Preventive controls include Critical Control Points and other types of controls.

  • Preventive controls must be written

Types of Preventive Controls

Process Controls:

These are procedures and processes that are used to control parameters of processing (i.e. acidifying, refrigerating, cooking.) They must be written in a way that is specific to your process and they must include:

  • parameters associated with controlling the hazard (i.e. if you are using cooking as a process control, then you must include the required cook temperature and cook time)

  • The maximum or minimum values required to control the hazard.


Food Allergen Controls

These include processes to control food allergens. These are implemented to:

  • Protect food from allergen cross contact

  • Label food properly with allergens to ensure it isn't misbranded


Sanitation Controls:

These are practices to ensure the facility is kept clean and to minimize biological hazards. They relate to:

  • Cleanliness of food-contact surfaces (equipment, utensils, tables)

  • Prevention of contamination of food from dirty sources (i.e. dirty people, dirty food, dirty packaging, dirty raw ingredients)


Supply Chain Controls:

Supply Chain Controls are described fully in Part G


Other Controls

You may have other types of controls (i.e. hygiene training and current good manufacturing practices)

What To Do If You Implement a Preventive Control

If you implement one or more preventive controls then you must conduct the following activities for each one:

  1. Monitoring activities

  2. Corrective actions

  3. Verification activities

Circumstances Where Preventive Controls Are Not Required

You aren't required to implement preventive controls if any of the following apply:

  1. The food cannot be consumed without application of an appropriate control (i.e. coffee beans cannot be consumed without pouring boiling water on them, which would kill any bacteria on the bean. By preparing coffee the consumer is inherently applying the necessary control)

  2. You rely on your customer, who is subject to this subpart, to ensure that the hazard is mitigated. You must:

i. Disclose in writing that the food is "not processed to control [identify hazard]" and

ii. Annually obtain written assurance that the customer is following the procedures you have provided, which will eliminate the hazard.

3. You rely on the customer who is not subject to this subpart to eliminate the hazard. You must:

i. Disclose in writing that the food is "not processed to control [identify hazard]" and

ii. Annually obtain written assurance that the customer is following the procedures you have provided, which will eliminate the hazard.

4. You rely on the customer to provide assurance that the food will be processed to control the hazard by a subsequent entity in the supply chain

i. Disclose in writing that the food is "not processed to control [identify hazard]" and

ii. Annually obtain written assurance that your customer will:

A. Disclose in documents accompanying the food that it is "not processed to control [identify hazard]"

B. Will only sell to another entity that agrees in writing that it will mitigate the hazard and obtain similar written assurance from subsequent customers.

5. You have established and implemented a system that ensures control of the hazards in your product, at the distribution step.

Note: You must document any circumstance (related to the section above) that applies to you, including written assurances from customers.


 
 

This Article is For You if…

∆ You manage a facility that makes, holds, or packs food.

∆ You are developing a food safety plan or HACCP plan.

∆ You have identified a hazard in your hazard analysis

∆ You are subject to Part 117 Subpart C (very small businesses are exempt from this requirement)


Resources

Food Safety Plan Templates

Food Safety Plan Templates


More About Food Safety Plans

More Posts


References

Hazard Analysis

These requirements are a part of our comprehensive Food Safety Plan Guide

Hazard analysis Post Thumbnail.png

What you need to know:

  • A hazard analysis is the process of identifying all of the hazards present in your process that could potentially cause a customer injury.

  • Creating a Hazard Analysis is the first step in developing a food safety or HACCP plan.

  • You can read the requirements below or just use our self-guided hazard analysis template

Requirements for a Hazard Analysis:

  1. You must conduct a hazard analysis for each type of food manufactured, processed, packed, or held at your facility.

  2. Your hazard analysis must be written.

Steps in Creating a Hazard Analysis

1. Download our Hazard Analysis Template

It’s available for free here, and it will be much easier if you can follow along.

Example Process Flow - Each box corresponds to a process step.

Example Process Flow - Each box corresponds to a process step.

2. Identify the steps in your process from start to finish.

It’s important that you have every step in your process identified so that you don’t miss anything in your hazard analysis. Often, it’s easiest to conduct a process flow diagram to identify all of the steps in your process.

3. Conduct a Hazard Identification:

In this step, you review all of your process steps and identify if there are any hazards present at each step. For each step, you will consider 3 types of hazards:

  • Biological Hazards (bacteria, parasites, etc.)

  • Chemical hazards (i.e. toxins, pesticides, food allergens)

  • Physical hazards (i.e. stone, glass, metal fragments)

Your hazard identification should also include hazards that could be present in the food because:

  • The hazard occurs naturally (i.e. toxins in fish)

  • The hazard may be accidentally introduced (jewelry from employee falls into food)

  • The hazard may be introduced intentionally for economic gain (i.e. sabotage by a competitor)

4. Conduct Hazard Evaluation

The hazard evaluation is the last step in creating your Hazard Analysis. Here, you must evaluate each hazard that you identified to assess the probability that it would occur if left unaddressed.

If the probability is high that this hazard would cause an injury if unaddressed, then you must implement a “preventive control”.

You also must consider the effects of these things in your hazard evaluation.

  • Formulation of the food

  • Condition and design of the facility

  • Raw materials and other ingredients

  • Transportation practices

  • Processing procedures

  • Packaging and labeling activities

  • Storage and distribution

  • Intended use of the product

  • Sanitation, including employee hygiene

  • Any other relevant factors (i.e. weather, natural toxins)

  • Environmental pathogens whenever a ready-to-eat (RTE) food is exposed to the environment before packaging.


 
 

This Article is For You if…

∆ You manage a facility that makes, holds, or packs food.

∆ You are developing a food safety plan or HACCP plan.

∆ You are subject to Part 117 Subpart C (very small businesses are exempt from this requirement)


Resources

Hazard Analysis Template

Hazard Analysis Template


More About Food Safety Plans

More Posts


References